The Accepted Definitions For Art and Its Classification – Industry Arts

Art is an area of study that is very broad. Generally, art is defined as a means of self-expression. There is not just one definition widely accepted for Art. Art lends itself to several definitions. Some of these definitions are:• It is a means of expressing one’s ideas through painting, drawing, sculpting etc.
• It is any activity in which a person gives order and form to organized ideas to bring out a new creation.
• It is a way of life and forms an integral part of life.
• It is the production of items with visual tools such as lines, colour, textures, etc. guided by design principles to satisfy both the aesthetic and functional needs of the individual and the society.
• It refers to the products of human creativity.
•It is a means of self-expression.Art is broadly divided into two. These are I) Liberal Arts and ii) Creative Artsi) Liberal Arts refer to the studies intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills such as law, literature, government, etc. It is usually referred to as humanities since it is a humanistic discipline that addresses concerns of social living.ii) Creative Arts refer to the arts that employ creative abilities in the production of artefacts that are useful in carrying out our day to day activities. Unlike the liberal arts, creative arts offer self-occupational or practical skills which are manual in nature to its learners. It is the focus as far as the study of Visual art is concerned.It should be noted that when the term ‘art’ is mentioned in the realms of visual art education, we are in effect talking about the creative arts. It is divided into two main branches namely a) Visual arts and b) Performing Arts.Visual ArtsThis refers to all creative or artistic products that are perceived with the sense of sight (optical sense-eye), sense of touch (skin) and can arouse emotions. Therefore, any creative product you can see, touch and can arouse in you an emotional feeling can be said to be a visual art form. Let’s take a drawing done on a sheet of paper as an example. Since one can see the drawing with the eye and can touch it while this same drawing also arouses an emotional feeling in the person seeing it, we can say with conviction that drawing is a visual art form.Visual arts is sometimes referred to as Plastic or solid arts because of their tangible nature. It is divided into two groups. These are Fine arts and Industrial arts.• Fine Arts are produced to serve as a form of decoration in the interiors and exteriors of homes, offices etc. They are purposely produced to satisfy the aesthetic drive of the viewer. Owing to this, the aesthetic qualities of the works in this area is stressed or given much emphasis in their creation. Though these arts may play other roles, it should be noted that their main function is for decoration. Examples include Painting, Graphic design, Picture making and Sculpture.• Industrial arts also known as applied arts are those that focus more on the functions or uses of the artistic product, not its aesthetic value. They are created to satisfy the utilitarian needs of the individual while carrying out duties in our everyday life. They are purely usable art forms. Examples include Textiles, Leatherwork, Ceramics, Pottery, and Jewellery.Performing ArtsThese are perceived by the sense of sight and sense of movement (kinesthetic sense). They are performed or played. They are seen in a stream of time. Examples include music, dance and drama. An aspect of performing arts is Verbal arts which are performances communicated with words and body gestures. They include poetry, incantations, recitations etc.There are unique characteristics that differentiate visual arts from performing arts. First, let us discuss that of visual arts.1. These are art that appeals to our sense of sight and can also be felt by our sense of touch.2. Visual art is made.3. Examples are painting, sculpture, textiles etc.4. It can be seen and felt thus making it tangible.5. It is not limited by time.On the other hand, these are the distinct features of performing arts.1. These are art forms perceived by our kinesthetic sense and sense of touch.2. Performing art is performed /played.3. Examples are music, dance, drama, poetry etc.4. It cannot be touched, thus making it intangible.5. It can be seen in streams of time.

Industrial Design Schools – How to Become a Talented Industrial Designer – Industry Arts

Industrial design schools have been created to meet the most recent requirements in education. This subject is closely linked to both art and science. As notion, it has broken the limit between these two opposed departments.Industrial denotes function and technique, whilst design denotes art, creativity and innovation. These two ideas are on the whole used in a variety of activity sections. Any ambitious industrial designer can explore his imagination with one of the options offered by the educational market. If you trust that your artistic talent can be related to the technical or industrial market, than industrial design schools can encourage you. The best schools created a series of training strategies or programs that are correlated to various sections, and these are only very few of them::- CAD (computer-aided design)CAD (Computer-Aided Design) is a category which creates visual concepts using certain professional software applications. It is a key application, which extended from real realm to virtual area.- design and aestheticsIf we formerly talked about art, we also have to say that this sub-discipline in industrial art is defining for creation. Students attending the professional industrial schools make use principally by their creative part. Their talent should grow to be more and more mature, and in this way they can attend one of the industrial design tendencies.- engineeringThis discipline expanded from engineering in direction of industrial design and not backwards. This section of knowledge is the core of the production system in this realm. These institutions established the engineering interface with a large variety of industrial technology subdisciplines. Once a product is developed, it has to work out. Here function redefines method.- production processAs for production, you must deal with various tasks. As soon as you have established your product concept, you must identify the optimal cost, efficient resources for your production line. Testing your prototype is important in order to inaugurate new products on a certain field. Continuing progress for the existing market products is also a significant pattern.Having formerly underlined the production and engineering phases of the industrial design, we may introduce you another concept, that is “mass product”. This concept has a really close correlation to industrialization. In general, industrial design schools assist young aspiring industrial designers to explore functional qualities of human imagination in industrial production. If you have formerly paid attention to such school programs you could produce considerable changes in a wide variety of departments (medical market, domestic and scientific areas, architecture, transportation, decorations, engineering, production style). You may find below some of the most suitable industrial design schools:Virginia Tech, University of Illinois, Chicago, Rochester Institute of TechnologyIndustrial design schools launched competitive challenges even for those who wish to get specialized in any of the above outlined branches as you formerly have experience in such domain. Should you be thinking about such an application, you may visit their websites or some other industrial design schools you think to be able to help you fulfill your future activities, be completely informed upon their methods, and accept some advise from your teacher or trainer. Have you already decided, all you need to perform is to complete the application form.

5 Key Terms Artists Need To Know In Art Licensing – Industry Arts

Art Licensing. License. Licensee. Licensor. There are quite a few terms, with LICENSE as the root, that artists need to understand when entering the art licensing industry. Art Licensing is a way to be paid for your art. Manufacturers pay an artist royalties for using their art, based on sales, as opposed to paying a flat sum to use or own the art outright.Here are 5 terms, all related to the word license, that artists need to understand when entering the art licensing industry:License The agreement that transfers or grants rights to another person. In art licensing, you are giving a manufacturer or retailer the right to use your art for ____. The blank might be a particular product – for example, ceramic dishes – or a group of products.
Licensor The licensor is the owner of the image or art. If you are the artist, you are the licensor.
Licensee The licensee is the recipient of the grant of rights (the manufacturer). For some reason, I had a real mental block about whether I was the “Licensor” or “Licensee”. Here is how I keep it straight: “THE LICENSEE ISN’T ME”. Silly, but effective!
Licensed Property The art or images being licensed, through the use of a License agreement.
Licensed Product The products made by the Licensee, or manufacturer, that feature the LICENSED PROPERTY. They are the products that will have your art or images on them.Some are used in business conversation and others are primarily used in contracts, also called License Agreements, but understanding what these terms mean is key to building confidence when promoting your art to manufacturers.

5 Key Terms Artists Need To Know In Art Licensing – Industry Arts

Art Licensing. License. Licensee. Licensor. There are quite a few terms, with LICENSE as the root, that artists need to understand when entering the art licensing industry. Art Licensing is a way to be paid for your art. Manufacturers pay an artist royalties for using their art, based on sales, as opposed to paying a flat sum to use or own the art outright.Here are 5 terms, all related to the word license, that artists need to understand when entering the art licensing industry:License The agreement that transfers or grants rights to another person. In art licensing, you are giving a manufacturer or retailer the right to use your art for ____. The blank might be a particular product – for example, ceramic dishes – or a group of products.
Licensor The licensor is the owner of the image or art. If you are the artist, you are the licensor.
Licensee The licensee is the recipient of the grant of rights (the manufacturer). For some reason, I had a real mental block about whether I was the “Licensor” or “Licensee”. Here is how I keep it straight: “THE LICENSEE ISN’T ME”. Silly, but effective!
Licensed Property The art or images being licensed, through the use of a License agreement.
Licensed Product The products made by the Licensee, or manufacturer, that feature the LICENSED PROPERTY. They are the products that will have your art or images on them.Some are used in business conversation and others are primarily used in contracts, also called License Agreements, but understanding what these terms mean is key to building confidence when promoting your art to manufacturers.

Industrial Design Schools – How to Become a Talented Industrial Designer – Industry Arts

Industrial design schools have been created to meet the most recent requirements in education. This subject is closely linked to both art and science. As notion, it has broken the limit between these two opposed departments.Industrial denotes function and technique, whilst design denotes art, creativity and innovation. These two ideas are on the whole used in a variety of activity sections. Any ambitious industrial designer can explore his imagination with one of the options offered by the educational market. If you trust that your artistic talent can be related to the technical or industrial market, than industrial design schools can encourage you. The best schools created a series of training strategies or programs that are correlated to various sections, and these are only very few of them::- CAD (computer-aided design)CAD (Computer-Aided Design) is a category which creates visual concepts using certain professional software applications. It is a key application, which extended from real realm to virtual area.- design and aestheticsIf we formerly talked about art, we also have to say that this sub-discipline in industrial art is defining for creation. Students attending the professional industrial schools make use principally by their creative part. Their talent should grow to be more and more mature, and in this way they can attend one of the industrial design tendencies.- engineeringThis discipline expanded from engineering in direction of industrial design and not backwards. This section of knowledge is the core of the production system in this realm. These institutions established the engineering interface with a large variety of industrial technology subdisciplines. Once a product is developed, it has to work out. Here function redefines method.- production processAs for production, you must deal with various tasks. As soon as you have established your product concept, you must identify the optimal cost, efficient resources for your production line. Testing your prototype is important in order to inaugurate new products on a certain field. Continuing progress for the existing market products is also a significant pattern.Having formerly underlined the production and engineering phases of the industrial design, we may introduce you another concept, that is “mass product”. This concept has a really close correlation to industrialization. In general, industrial design schools assist young aspiring industrial designers to explore functional qualities of human imagination in industrial production. If you have formerly paid attention to such school programs you could produce considerable changes in a wide variety of departments (medical market, domestic and scientific areas, architecture, transportation, decorations, engineering, production style). You may find below some of the most suitable industrial design schools:Virginia Tech, University of Illinois, Chicago, Rochester Institute of TechnologyIndustrial design schools launched competitive challenges even for those who wish to get specialized in any of the above outlined branches as you formerly have experience in such domain. Should you be thinking about such an application, you may visit their websites or some other industrial design schools you think to be able to help you fulfill your future activities, be completely informed upon their methods, and accept some advise from your teacher or trainer. Have you already decided, all you need to perform is to complete the application form.

The Accepted Definitions For Art and Its Classification – Industry Arts

Art is an area of study that is very broad. Generally, art is defined as a means of self-expression. There is not just one definition widely accepted for Art. Art lends itself to several definitions. Some of these definitions are:• It is a means of expressing one’s ideas through painting, drawing, sculpting etc.
• It is any activity in which a person gives order and form to organized ideas to bring out a new creation.
• It is a way of life and forms an integral part of life.
• It is the production of items with visual tools such as lines, colour, textures, etc. guided by design principles to satisfy both the aesthetic and functional needs of the individual and the society.
• It refers to the products of human creativity.
•It is a means of self-expression.Art is broadly divided into two. These are I) Liberal Arts and ii) Creative Artsi) Liberal Arts refer to the studies intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills such as law, literature, government, etc. It is usually referred to as humanities since it is a humanistic discipline that addresses concerns of social living.ii) Creative Arts refer to the arts that employ creative abilities in the production of artefacts that are useful in carrying out our day to day activities. Unlike the liberal arts, creative arts offer self-occupational or practical skills which are manual in nature to its learners. It is the focus as far as the study of Visual art is concerned.It should be noted that when the term ‘art’ is mentioned in the realms of visual art education, we are in effect talking about the creative arts. It is divided into two main branches namely a) Visual arts and b) Performing Arts.Visual ArtsThis refers to all creative or artistic products that are perceived with the sense of sight (optical sense-eye), sense of touch (skin) and can arouse emotions. Therefore, any creative product you can see, touch and can arouse in you an emotional feeling can be said to be a visual art form. Let’s take a drawing done on a sheet of paper as an example. Since one can see the drawing with the eye and can touch it while this same drawing also arouses an emotional feeling in the person seeing it, we can say with conviction that drawing is a visual art form.Visual arts is sometimes referred to as Plastic or solid arts because of their tangible nature. It is divided into two groups. These are Fine arts and Industrial arts.• Fine Arts are produced to serve as a form of decoration in the interiors and exteriors of homes, offices etc. They are purposely produced to satisfy the aesthetic drive of the viewer. Owing to this, the aesthetic qualities of the works in this area is stressed or given much emphasis in their creation. Though these arts may play other roles, it should be noted that their main function is for decoration. Examples include Painting, Graphic design, Picture making and Sculpture.• Industrial arts also known as applied arts are those that focus more on the functions or uses of the artistic product, not its aesthetic value. They are created to satisfy the utilitarian needs of the individual while carrying out duties in our everyday life. They are purely usable art forms. Examples include Textiles, Leatherwork, Ceramics, Pottery, and Jewellery.Performing ArtsThese are perceived by the sense of sight and sense of movement (kinesthetic sense). They are performed or played. They are seen in a stream of time. Examples include music, dance and drama. An aspect of performing arts is Verbal arts which are performances communicated with words and body gestures. They include poetry, incantations, recitations etc.There are unique characteristics that differentiate visual arts from performing arts. First, let us discuss that of visual arts.1. These are art that appeals to our sense of sight and can also be felt by our sense of touch.2. Visual art is made.3. Examples are painting, sculpture, textiles etc.4. It can be seen and felt thus making it tangible.5. It is not limited by time.On the other hand, these are the distinct features of performing arts.1. These are art forms perceived by our kinesthetic sense and sense of touch.2. Performing art is performed /played.3. Examples are music, dance, drama, poetry etc.4. It cannot be touched, thus making it intangible.5. It can be seen in streams of time.

Where to Find Beautiful Arts and Crafts – Industry Arts

Arts and CraftsWhat are ‘arts & crafts’? Generally, the term ‘arts & crafts’ refers to handmade products that have been designed individually with the intent of creating a piece of artwork or a decoration. People engage in arts & crafts as artisans and crafters – that is, those who make their living by producing and selling handmade objects – as well as countless hobbyists who do it just for their own enjoyment. Of course, there can also be a hidden benefit if you can make your own gifts rather than having to purchase them. Arts & crafts are deeply rooted in regional and ethnic cultures, so the specifics of what kinds of objects constitute arts & crafts varies greatly across the world.How long have arts and crafts been around?The origin of arts & crafts can be found in simple bartering transactions; expert artisans and crafters would trade their skill for sustenance. The artisans and crafters would then pass their knowledge on to the next generation through an apprentice – an assistance who grew up with the artisan for the sole purpose of learning their trade. Artisans who passed their knowledge on in this manner include ironworkers, glass blowers, weavers and blacksmiths.Of course, this all changed with the industrial revolution. Many of the lovingly handcrafted items that were formerly made by crafters and artisans could now be cheaply produced in large quantities. As a result, arts & crafts as a widespread profession quickly died out; individual artisans and crafters could just not compete with industrial efficiency. Today, those individuals who specialize in the former staples such as glass blowing or weaving are rare, and usually create high-priced items, in contrast to their utilitarian forbearers. In the end arts & crafts is mostly made up by hobbyists and small retailers.How do you find arts and crafts?Arts & crafts are generally not difficult to locate. Artisans often participate at arts & crafts fairs in order to have the opportunity to sell their wares, and allow buyers the opportunity to browse and shop from a variety of different types of arts & crafts.Festivals and fairs are good destinations to look for arts & crafts. Many vendors will rent booths at these events in order to reach a wide audience. In addition to shows and fairs, permanent arts & crafts malls are also easy to find in most metropolitan areas. Frequently, these malls include a collection of semi-permanent booths rented out by multiple artisans and crafters.Of course, if the buyer knows exactly the kind of item he or she is looking for, the Internet can be a great resource for finding the perfect arts & crafts item. More and more artisans and crafters are now posting their wares online with the ability view photos and read descriptions of their unique products. Nonetheless, while online retail sales have taken off in other industries, arts & crafts buyers typically like the experience of finding and seeing the one-of-a-kind products in person, which has slowed down its adoption in this area.’Art’ and ‘Craft’Art generally refers to fine arts, such as glass creations, paintings and sculptures. The people behind the creation of these objects have usually received formal training at art schools or have studied art through other programs. These art objects are usually expensive.Crafts, on the other hand, are usually considered to be smaller in scale, or colloquially known as ‘grassroots’ in their creation. Those who create crafts are generally doing so based on passed down knowledge without any formal education. This of course does not mean that they are any less talented than artists. ‘Arts & crafts’ then is the merging of these two creative trends; grassroots objects made by highly skilled artisans and crafters.The most common arts & crafts objectsAs stated above, there are literally countless variations and iterations of arts & crafts objects in the world. Nonetheless, most arts & crafts can be fitted into a few basic categories: handmade jewelry, pottery, woodworking, metalworking, and sculpture are some basic categories into which most arts & crafts can be assembled. Other common types of arts & crafts include cross-stitch, weaving, crochet, knitting, embroidery, patchwork, quilting, macramé, and others. Still more common types include ceramics, wood, metal, needlepoint & textiles, and glass works. Still others are based on paper and paper products, including scrapbooking, calligraphy, collages, paper mache, and origami.How do you find other arts and crafts collectors?There are a number of national, regional, and local arts & crafts organizations that can provide both artisans and collectors a place where they can network and gain a sense of community. Some examples of popular organizations include the American Sewing Guild, the Arts & Crafts Society, the Black Crafters Guild, the Home Sewing Association, the National Art Materials Trade Association, the Canadian Craft & Hobby Association, the American Quilter’s Society, the Craft & Hobby Association (United States).

Where to Find Beautiful Arts and Crafts – Industry Arts

Arts and CraftsWhat are ‘arts & crafts’? Generally, the term ‘arts & crafts’ refers to handmade products that have been designed individually with the intent of creating a piece of artwork or a decoration. People engage in arts & crafts as artisans and crafters – that is, those who make their living by producing and selling handmade objects – as well as countless hobbyists who do it just for their own enjoyment. Of course, there can also be a hidden benefit if you can make your own gifts rather than having to purchase them. Arts & crafts are deeply rooted in regional and ethnic cultures, so the specifics of what kinds of objects constitute arts & crafts varies greatly across the world.How long have arts and crafts been around?The origin of arts & crafts can be found in simple bartering transactions; expert artisans and crafters would trade their skill for sustenance. The artisans and crafters would then pass their knowledge on to the next generation through an apprentice – an assistance who grew up with the artisan for the sole purpose of learning their trade. Artisans who passed their knowledge on in this manner include ironworkers, glass blowers, weavers and blacksmiths.Of course, this all changed with the industrial revolution. Many of the lovingly handcrafted items that were formerly made by crafters and artisans could now be cheaply produced in large quantities. As a result, arts & crafts as a widespread profession quickly died out; individual artisans and crafters could just not compete with industrial efficiency. Today, those individuals who specialize in the former staples such as glass blowing or weaving are rare, and usually create high-priced items, in contrast to their utilitarian forbearers. In the end arts & crafts is mostly made up by hobbyists and small retailers.How do you find arts and crafts?Arts & crafts are generally not difficult to locate. Artisans often participate at arts & crafts fairs in order to have the opportunity to sell their wares, and allow buyers the opportunity to browse and shop from a variety of different types of arts & crafts.Festivals and fairs are good destinations to look for arts & crafts. Many vendors will rent booths at these events in order to reach a wide audience. In addition to shows and fairs, permanent arts & crafts malls are also easy to find in most metropolitan areas. Frequently, these malls include a collection of semi-permanent booths rented out by multiple artisans and crafters.Of course, if the buyer knows exactly the kind of item he or she is looking for, the Internet can be a great resource for finding the perfect arts & crafts item. More and more artisans and crafters are now posting their wares online with the ability view photos and read descriptions of their unique products. Nonetheless, while online retail sales have taken off in other industries, arts & crafts buyers typically like the experience of finding and seeing the one-of-a-kind products in person, which has slowed down its adoption in this area.’Art’ and ‘Craft’Art generally refers to fine arts, such as glass creations, paintings and sculptures. The people behind the creation of these objects have usually received formal training at art schools or have studied art through other programs. These art objects are usually expensive.Crafts, on the other hand, are usually considered to be smaller in scale, or colloquially known as ‘grassroots’ in their creation. Those who create crafts are generally doing so based on passed down knowledge without any formal education. This of course does not mean that they are any less talented than artists. ‘Arts & crafts’ then is the merging of these two creative trends; grassroots objects made by highly skilled artisans and crafters.The most common arts & crafts objectsAs stated above, there are literally countless variations and iterations of arts & crafts objects in the world. Nonetheless, most arts & crafts can be fitted into a few basic categories: handmade jewelry, pottery, woodworking, metalworking, and sculpture are some basic categories into which most arts & crafts can be assembled. Other common types of arts & crafts include cross-stitch, weaving, crochet, knitting, embroidery, patchwork, quilting, macramé, and others. Still more common types include ceramics, wood, metal, needlepoint & textiles, and glass works. Still others are based on paper and paper products, including scrapbooking, calligraphy, collages, paper mache, and origami.How do you find other arts and crafts collectors?There are a number of national, regional, and local arts & crafts organizations that can provide both artisans and collectors a place where they can network and gain a sense of community. Some examples of popular organizations include the American Sewing Guild, the Arts & Crafts Society, the Black Crafters Guild, the Home Sewing Association, the National Art Materials Trade Association, the Canadian Craft & Hobby Association, the American Quilter’s Society, the Craft & Hobby Association (United States).

History of Fireplaces in Arts and Crafts – Industry Arts

Fireplaces were an important feature of Arts and Crafts design. In the era from which the Movement drew its inspiration the fireplace was only beginning to be sited on the sidewalls of great halls in the houses of the very rich. So the style adopted by Arts and Crafts was a 19th century day pastiche of what was really constructed during the Wars of the Roses. Designs were often in brick although stone could be used where it was a local material. The fireplaces were large, often rounded and had an inglenook feel. Bricks would vary in size, with courses laid vertically as well as conventionally or possibly in a herringbone pattern. Later designs often included tiles and the type of sinuous designs that are associated with Charles Rennie Macintosh and Art Nouveau. Tiles might have a pastoral scene or a complex flower motif and the Rockwood Pottery that produced early designs was closely associated with Morris & Co, the company that William Morris ran from 1875. We still live with the Arts & Crafts legacy in mock Tudor houses, twentieth century wall panelling and old brick fireplaces. Like virtually all styles of the last two hundred years the popularity declines only to reappear up to one hundred years later.Charles Rennie Mackintosh is regarded as one of the greatest influences on architecture this century. His all too short career spanned the turn of the century and produced a variety of innovative buildings and interiors around his birthplace of Glasgow. Some see Mackintosh as a modernist, others as the link between Art Nouveau and Art Deco. He was probably neither, drawing his inspiration as much from classical shapes as the new industrial art which was beginning to prevail all over Europe.Mackintosh was not just an architect. His design brilliance extended to the interiors of the buildings that he designed. Together with his wife Margaret, Mackintosh believed that the interior layout was as important as the exterior form and designed individual items to compliment the total look of the building. Fireplaces were, in his opinion, the ‘glowing focus with decorative and symbolic interest’. It was important for him that each design should meld into the room and be personalised for the needs of the owner. His most famous brief was Hill House in Dumbarton, which he designed for the publisher, Blackie. In this house each fireplace is different. The living room design has niches for ornaments, while the fireplace in the library links areas of the room to form a whole. Each has been thought through and tailored so that is part of the room, not just a fitting.Today’s fireplaces in the Mackintosh style tend to reflect his graphic style rather than his design flair. Art Nouveau roses interpreted by Mackintosh are common features and evoke turn of the century style. His designs for mantelpieces and complete fireplaces are too personal for ‘off the shelf’ production and will remain unique in the houses where they were installed.Whilst the name of Charles Rennie Macintosh first comes to mind when early 1900s architecture is mentioned, it is probably Edwin Lutyens who has left the greatest impression on country houses and official buildings in the UK and beyond. Macintosh, from his base in Glasgow rose like a shooting star around the turn of the 20th century only to disappear as quickly after only 10 to 15 years of architectural design. Lutyens, often together with garden designer Gertrude Jykell, produced houses in a wonderful late Victorian / Edwardian vernacular style that still impresses today.An examination of many of Lutyens Country House designs highlights the importance that he, and more importantly his clients, placed on the design of fireplaces. Many of his major, well-known designs – Castle Drogo, Great Dixter, Little Thakeham and others – feature in excess of 10 fireplaces – many specially designed to compliment the ambience of the room.Barton St. Mary near East Grinstead is a case in point. Designed in a rendered, South of England style, Barton St. Mary resembles two cottages joined together. Internally, massive stone inglenooks, wealth of oak beams and vaulted ceilings evoke an era much earlier than its actual turn-of-the-20th century construction. In the dining room a large fireplace with projecting shelf and converging firesides in herringbone brickwork has a beautiful simplicity that is almost ageless.Built for local industrialist, Arthur Hemmingway, Heathcote near Ilkley is altogether a different proposition from Barton St. Mary. Finished in local stone, it is an imposingly grand house with echoes of a stately home. Internally neo-classical design reigns with pillars and ornate coving. In the Dining Room we see a simple bolection design with a massive Adamesque fireplace design superimposed over it. This is a strange combination, possibly specified by Mr. Hemingway himself. Bolection designs, with their unpretentious moulded shape were extremely popular, some within larger Adam-style designs, others forming the complete fireplace were common in other Lutyens houses – Great Maytham in Kent, Nashdom in Taplow, Berkshire and Temple Dinsley in Hertfordshire. Lutyens was often involved in modernisation of older houses where once again the simplicity of the bolection design helped blend new with old. Even today, bolection fireplaces are very much admired.Lutyens designs were undoubtedly extremely influential within the select moneyed class who employed him. However, it was Minsterstone together with a myriad of other local manufacturers of stone, marble and brick designs who adapted his designs for the smaller fireplaces to cater for the emerging middle class. Many of the fireplace manufacturers from this era have disappeared leaving Minsterstone, with its 120-year history as a lone survivor from a time when the gap between rich and poor was much larger than it is today.The dawning of the twentieth century also saw a variety of different stylistic influences on the fireplace in a way that no other century had experienced. The heavy, gothic style that so typified the middle of the Victorian era was still being produced in vast numbers. But present and popular with the cognoscenti was the powerful Art Nouveau look, which had taken the country by storm, following the Paris Exhibition of 1881.The roots of Art Nouveau lay in the great European capitals of Vienna and Paris where the artistic elite rebelled against the constraints of the previous generation. The movement took on board the cast iron fireplaces, for so long the trade mark of the suburban development of our large cities, and added sinuous ornamentation, which gave these utilitarian items a modern look. Tiles on tile sliders began to appear in a wealth of designs inspired by rural images as well as classic Art Nouveau references such as the grapevine.William Morris’ Arts & Crafts movement continued to exert an influence well in to the twentieth century. The inglenook had been a popular revival feature of Arts and Crafts’ fireplaces as it created seating around the fire – often the only warm part of the house. In fact Morris’ followers liked many features of medieval and Tudor fireplaces which they adapted and incorporated into their designs – some adding features like overmantels which would never have been part of the original.The 1920s looked for a different approach that combined industry with art. After the First World war, revival was still the name of the game for the middle classes who wanted their suburban houses gentrified with mock Tudor beams and fireplaces. However, the rich and the artistic longed for designs that reflected the twin ethos of work and leisure.Art Deco filled this void and was born at the 1925 Paris based exhibition titled ‘L’Exposition Internationale des Arts Deco et Industriels Modernes’. At the time, the style was often called Paris 25. The concepts behind the Art Deco included:The sacrifice of decorative detail to function.The rejection of history in favour of modern ideasThe adaptation and adoption of industry – its designs and methods.Art Deco design was almost immediately translated into a wealth of designs, which used traditional fireplace materials, but in a more spectacular, avant-garde way. Simple understated lines were set off by the use of reflective chrome, lacquered wood or tiles to give a modern feeling, which shouted ‘Modern!’ without being too ornate.Like many of the other trends, Art Deco tended to be the preserve of the well off. The newly enriched suburban middle classes were more likely to have a simple tiled fireplace, normally in green beige or buff. Designs could reflect the Art Deco influence of the Mexican stepped pyramid or might be asymmetric, influenced by the social realism movement. Many 1930s tiled fireplaces also featured a wooden surround or mantelshelf in English oak.In the shires the fire surround was more likely to be in a local material, – brick in the South of England, stone in the North and tiles around Stoke on Trent. Designs in these areas were not so influenced by decorative trends. Functional features such as bread ovens and hooks for hanging cooking pots lingered on in full or partial use within the country cottage well into the 1930s and 40s.World War II witnessed a complete halt in the house building programme as resources were funnelled into replacing and repairing bombed houses and in the late 1940s the push to re-house families saw a move away from conventional fireplaces in favour of the ‘easy to install’ electric fire. However as the UK became more prosperous during the 1950s local authorities and private house builders started to install tiled fireplaces again creating a regular demand for the slabbed designs produced by members of the National Fireplace Manufacturer’s Association, which had been formed in 1945. These fireplaces were made down to specification rather than including any design flair and, by the middle of the decade, even the wooden mantel shelf had disappeared.

History of Fireplaces in Arts and Crafts – Industry Arts

Fireplaces were an important feature of Arts and Crafts design. In the era from which the Movement drew its inspiration the fireplace was only beginning to be sited on the sidewalls of great halls in the houses of the very rich. So the style adopted by Arts and Crafts was a 19th century day pastiche of what was really constructed during the Wars of the Roses. Designs were often in brick although stone could be used where it was a local material. The fireplaces were large, often rounded and had an inglenook feel. Bricks would vary in size, with courses laid vertically as well as conventionally or possibly in a herringbone pattern. Later designs often included tiles and the type of sinuous designs that are associated with Charles Rennie Macintosh and Art Nouveau. Tiles might have a pastoral scene or a complex flower motif and the Rockwood Pottery that produced early designs was closely associated with Morris & Co, the company that William Morris ran from 1875. We still live with the Arts & Crafts legacy in mock Tudor houses, twentieth century wall panelling and old brick fireplaces. Like virtually all styles of the last two hundred years the popularity declines only to reappear up to one hundred years later.Charles Rennie Mackintosh is regarded as one of the greatest influences on architecture this century. His all too short career spanned the turn of the century and produced a variety of innovative buildings and interiors around his birthplace of Glasgow. Some see Mackintosh as a modernist, others as the link between Art Nouveau and Art Deco. He was probably neither, drawing his inspiration as much from classical shapes as the new industrial art which was beginning to prevail all over Europe.Mackintosh was not just an architect. His design brilliance extended to the interiors of the buildings that he designed. Together with his wife Margaret, Mackintosh believed that the interior layout was as important as the exterior form and designed individual items to compliment the total look of the building. Fireplaces were, in his opinion, the ‘glowing focus with decorative and symbolic interest’. It was important for him that each design should meld into the room and be personalised for the needs of the owner. His most famous brief was Hill House in Dumbarton, which he designed for the publisher, Blackie. In this house each fireplace is different. The living room design has niches for ornaments, while the fireplace in the library links areas of the room to form a whole. Each has been thought through and tailored so that is part of the room, not just a fitting.Today’s fireplaces in the Mackintosh style tend to reflect his graphic style rather than his design flair. Art Nouveau roses interpreted by Mackintosh are common features and evoke turn of the century style. His designs for mantelpieces and complete fireplaces are too personal for ‘off the shelf’ production and will remain unique in the houses where they were installed.Whilst the name of Charles Rennie Macintosh first comes to mind when early 1900s architecture is mentioned, it is probably Edwin Lutyens who has left the greatest impression on country houses and official buildings in the UK and beyond. Macintosh, from his base in Glasgow rose like a shooting star around the turn of the 20th century only to disappear as quickly after only 10 to 15 years of architectural design. Lutyens, often together with garden designer Gertrude Jykell, produced houses in a wonderful late Victorian / Edwardian vernacular style that still impresses today.An examination of many of Lutyens Country House designs highlights the importance that he, and more importantly his clients, placed on the design of fireplaces. Many of his major, well-known designs – Castle Drogo, Great Dixter, Little Thakeham and others – feature in excess of 10 fireplaces – many specially designed to compliment the ambience of the room.Barton St. Mary near East Grinstead is a case in point. Designed in a rendered, South of England style, Barton St. Mary resembles two cottages joined together. Internally, massive stone inglenooks, wealth of oak beams and vaulted ceilings evoke an era much earlier than its actual turn-of-the-20th century construction. In the dining room a large fireplace with projecting shelf and converging firesides in herringbone brickwork has a beautiful simplicity that is almost ageless.Built for local industrialist, Arthur Hemmingway, Heathcote near Ilkley is altogether a different proposition from Barton St. Mary. Finished in local stone, it is an imposingly grand house with echoes of a stately home. Internally neo-classical design reigns with pillars and ornate coving. In the Dining Room we see a simple bolection design with a massive Adamesque fireplace design superimposed over it. This is a strange combination, possibly specified by Mr. Hemingway himself. Bolection designs, with their unpretentious moulded shape were extremely popular, some within larger Adam-style designs, others forming the complete fireplace were common in other Lutyens houses – Great Maytham in Kent, Nashdom in Taplow, Berkshire and Temple Dinsley in Hertfordshire. Lutyens was often involved in modernisation of older houses where once again the simplicity of the bolection design helped blend new with old. Even today, bolection fireplaces are very much admired.Lutyens designs were undoubtedly extremely influential within the select moneyed class who employed him. However, it was Minsterstone together with a myriad of other local manufacturers of stone, marble and brick designs who adapted his designs for the smaller fireplaces to cater for the emerging middle class. Many of the fireplace manufacturers from this era have disappeared leaving Minsterstone, with its 120-year history as a lone survivor from a time when the gap between rich and poor was much larger than it is today.The dawning of the twentieth century also saw a variety of different stylistic influences on the fireplace in a way that no other century had experienced. The heavy, gothic style that so typified the middle of the Victorian era was still being produced in vast numbers. But present and popular with the cognoscenti was the powerful Art Nouveau look, which had taken the country by storm, following the Paris Exhibition of 1881.The roots of Art Nouveau lay in the great European capitals of Vienna and Paris where the artistic elite rebelled against the constraints of the previous generation. The movement took on board the cast iron fireplaces, for so long the trade mark of the suburban development of our large cities, and added sinuous ornamentation, which gave these utilitarian items a modern look. Tiles on tile sliders began to appear in a wealth of designs inspired by rural images as well as classic Art Nouveau references such as the grapevine.William Morris’ Arts & Crafts movement continued to exert an influence well in to the twentieth century. The inglenook had been a popular revival feature of Arts and Crafts’ fireplaces as it created seating around the fire – often the only warm part of the house. In fact Morris’ followers liked many features of medieval and Tudor fireplaces which they adapted and incorporated into their designs – some adding features like overmantels which would never have been part of the original.The 1920s looked for a different approach that combined industry with art. After the First World war, revival was still the name of the game for the middle classes who wanted their suburban houses gentrified with mock Tudor beams and fireplaces. However, the rich and the artistic longed for designs that reflected the twin ethos of work and leisure.Art Deco filled this void and was born at the 1925 Paris based exhibition titled ‘L’Exposition Internationale des Arts Deco et Industriels Modernes’. At the time, the style was often called Paris 25. The concepts behind the Art Deco included:The sacrifice of decorative detail to function.The rejection of history in favour of modern ideasThe adaptation and adoption of industry – its designs and methods.Art Deco design was almost immediately translated into a wealth of designs, which used traditional fireplace materials, but in a more spectacular, avant-garde way. Simple understated lines were set off by the use of reflective chrome, lacquered wood or tiles to give a modern feeling, which shouted ‘Modern!’ without being too ornate.Like many of the other trends, Art Deco tended to be the preserve of the well off. The newly enriched suburban middle classes were more likely to have a simple tiled fireplace, normally in green beige or buff. Designs could reflect the Art Deco influence of the Mexican stepped pyramid or might be asymmetric, influenced by the social realism movement. Many 1930s tiled fireplaces also featured a wooden surround or mantelshelf in English oak.In the shires the fire surround was more likely to be in a local material, – brick in the South of England, stone in the North and tiles around Stoke on Trent. Designs in these areas were not so influenced by decorative trends. Functional features such as bread ovens and hooks for hanging cooking pots lingered on in full or partial use within the country cottage well into the 1930s and 40s.World War II witnessed a complete halt in the house building programme as resources were funnelled into replacing and repairing bombed houses and in the late 1940s the push to re-house families saw a move away from conventional fireplaces in favour of the ‘easy to install’ electric fire. However as the UK became more prosperous during the 1950s local authorities and private house builders started to install tiled fireplaces again creating a regular demand for the slabbed designs produced by members of the National Fireplace Manufacturer’s Association, which had been formed in 1945. These fireplaces were made down to specification rather than including any design flair and, by the middle of the decade, even the wooden mantel shelf had disappeared.